Johnson suggests that, in some ways, the scavengers of contemporary cities such as New Delhi have arranged themselves into classes and subcultures in the same ways that the Victorian scavengers did 150 years ago. According to his mother, Pop died of a broken heart after Uncle Mark died, but according to Shawn he was killed at a … How was it possible that educated, “enlightened” Europeans thought nothing of the cruelty they witnessed in the Congo? Also, notice that Leopold had no qualms about allying with Tippu Tip, in spite of his decades of rhetoric against Arab slave-traders. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Whether in the 1890s or the 2010s, people get used to cruelty, and find ways of tolerating it. The Scientific Process. Finally, as psychologists have confirmed again and again, human beings have the disturbing ability to get used to cruelty and horror very quickly. Ghost is a complex character that deals with some pretty hefty issues. “Would not have made it through AP Literature without the printable PDFs. The Ghost Map: Chapter 8 Summary & Analysis Next. Life in the Congo was rigorously segregated; for example, European-built houses and hospitals were usually “whites only.” Congo administrators behaved hypocritically—they claimed to have come to Africa to preach Christianity, and yet some of them entered into multiple marriages, plainly disobeying the rules of Christianity. We’ll post a new chapter here and on our Facebook page every Tuesday and Thursday. Patina. In 1866, London experienced its last great outbreak of cholera, largely in its East End. Furthermore, 21st-century urban planners have major advantages over their 19th-century counterparts, not least of which that they can use the Internet to accumulate useful information about people, rather than having to go door-to-door, as Snow and Whitehead did. Epilogue. Leopold seems to have shown no affection for his daughters—instead of concentrating on his family life, he concentrated on running his colony in the Congo. Trivia and activities for chapter eight begin on Thursday, January 10th. Snow died before he could enjoy the total collapse of miasma theory—he only saw the beginning of its end. Jason Reynolds is such an amazing man. (including. Themes and Colors Key LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in King Leopold’s Ghost, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Perhaps most disturbingly, the Belgians’ human rights crimes in the Congo almost always occurred in broad daylight: over the years, many thousands of people witnessed soldiers and guards beating children and murdering innocent people, but did nothing to stop these atrocities. Created by. Chains by Laurie Halse Anderson Characters 15 terms. ... Bio-Chapter 8 Vocab 28 terms. STUDY. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. Instant downloads of all 1372 LitChart PDFs Inspired by Snow’s success in 1854,Whitehead and Farr succeeded in making their voices heard, popularizing the new waterborne paradigm in the process.
In the book, Ghost, what topic that he regularly reads about fascinates Ghost? His father is in prison for shooting at them. In part, visitors may have kept quiet about what they saw because they didn’t want to offend Leopold, or because they considered Africans to be sub-human. Few African voices had the luxury of describing slavery in the Congo, since African slaves weren’t taught how to read or write, and tended to die early deaths due to their owners’ cruelty. Sunny. Pop died when Will was three, so Will doesn’t remember anything about him. In this chapter, the newbies find out there are some strings attached to the meal at Coach’s newbie dinner and they all get to know each other a little better. What is Ghost’s favorite snack? Johnson (who lives in New York City) begins with the assumption that cities, in spite of some disadvantages, are generally worth preserving. In the years following the outbreak, the waterborne theory of cholera grew more popular, but miasma theory continued to dominate, thanks largely to. In 1897, a huge mutiny broke out, in which porters and members of the Force Publique joined together against the Belgian governors. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. Gravity. PLAY. For the most part, Europeans who came to work in the Congo didn’t keep records of their shock at the sight of so much cruelty. The key word in this passage is “paradigm.” The philosopher and science historian Thomas Kuhn argued that science can be understood as a set of distinct paradigms—unproven assumptions about the world—which disappear as soon as they’re replaced with a new paradigm. Chapter 9. Snow’s maps didn’t convince the city officials, but they convinced Whitehead, who went on to convince the St. James Vestry. This is the second book that I've read by him and was not let down by a long shot. Leopold’s behavior utterly contradicted his claims of being interested in philanthropy.

During the 2003 New York blackout, hundreds of people called 311 to inquire about storing insulin (which is usually supposed to be kept refrigerated). The Sanga tribesmen fought heroically against the Force Publique, eventually dying horrific deaths by asphyxiation as punishment for doing so. world records p.3. But Hochschild brings up a second, much more disturbing possibility: the ability to be indifferent to cruelty is timeless, and may even be a part of human nature. While it’s important to consider possible sources of bias when examining the historical record, it seems likely that Canisius and Ilanga were telling the truth—Ilanga had no clear incentive to lie to Canisius about the Force Publique’s behavior, and the forced march that she described to Canisius is in keeping with the character of the Force’s other actions in the late 19th century. Ghost by Jason Reynolds. Thus, he opened up the Congo to rubber and ivory companies, and made a large fortune in doing so. Spell. ... Jason Reynolds. Associate Principal: Nicole Talbot In general, Belgian cruelty persisted because many Europeans were eager to inflict harm on African people or celebrate other people for doing the same. Themes and Colors Key LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in The Ghost Map, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Flashcards. Porters were forced to carry heavy supplies across the territory, and they were horribly beaten if they failed in any of their assignments; as a result, most porters died quickly. Squatters have built entire communities for themselves, without the help of urban planners or the municipal government. Then you gotta beat it." From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. The governor general of the Congo lived in a luxurious mansion, yet didn’t have very many responsibilities—more than any other European colonies, the Congo was governed directly from Europe. But of course, these squatters face considerable dangers, not the least of which is a lack of clean water. ❤️, DCSD Grading for 100% Online Only Families, (PBIS) Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports. During this time, a European priest named. Imperialism. 3 likes. Instant downloads of all 1372 LitChart PDFs Furthermore, the world’s largest cities don’t seem to be on “a collision course with themselves,” as was the case in London in the 19th century. Like “Show you that you can’t run away from who you are, but what you can do is run toward who you want to be.” by Jason Reynolds ‧ RELEASE DATE: Aug. 30, 2016 Castle “Ghost” Cranshaw feels like he’s been running ever since his dad pulled that gun on him and his mom—and used it. The idea of studying cities as large, complex systems has proven highly influential in the discipline of urban planning.

Snow died before the epidemic of 1866, but his approach to research—based on statistical analysis, hands-on research, and rigorous scientific testing—lived on after him in his disciples, such as Whitehead and William Farr.
Both were devoted, painstaking researchers who never tired of visiting more subjects and asking them questions. Snow and Whitehead adopted different yet strikingly parallel approaches to studying the cholera epidemic of 1854. The germ theory of disease was a major paradigm shift for science, decimating the old miasma paradigm. Like “Because for something to make you feel tough, you gotta be a little bit scared of it at first. Koch wasn’t the first to discover the cholera bacterium—remember that Italian scientists had discovered it back in the 1850s. Necessity is the mother of invention, and various researchers and committee members realized that there was significant value in being able to map the spread of a disease—doing so might enable city planners to predict how future epidemics could travel across London. To this day, few Londoners realize how brilliantly designed their sewer system is, and how important its role is in avoiding a major crisis of the kind London experienced in the mid-19th century. Nevertheless, the fact that Koch is still remembered for isolating the bacterium demonstrates the importance of paradigms in scientific discourse: the Italians had made a vital discovery, but in part because it didn’t gel with the dominant miasma paradigm, few paid attention. Davenport, Iowa 52802 Going to the Congo was widely seen as an excellent career move. -Graham S. The official military force of the Congo was the Force Publique, troops of African mercenaries commanded by mostly white officers. Summary Castle “Ghost” Cranshaw is being raised by his single mother. Indeed, the colonialists of the Congo seemed to think that being cruel and unsympathetic to the people of the Congo was a sign of maturity and machismo. In spite of the strength of the Force Publique, there were many Africans in the Congo who chose to fight back rather than submit to tyranny. In this important passage, Hochschild discusses a Congolese tribe that refused to go willingly into slavery. (including. In part, Western visitors to the Congo ignored the cruelty around them because they thought of Africans as sub-human, and therefore undeserving of basic human respect. Urban Growth and Planning. But perhaps they chose to remain quiet because people—then and now—are often indifferent to the pain of others. For instance, New York City introduced a 311 phone service, designed for people who wanted to report information less urgent than the kind usually repotted by calling 911. (2016) Ghost. To this end, many city planners have installed services promoting the easy exchange of information, giving urban planners an efficient way of responding to their citizens’ needs. This passage is important for two reasons. Struggling with distance learning? New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers. Lu. In part, Western visitors tolerated cruelty to the Congolese because they were “products of their era”—in other words, at a time when many educated people believed that Africans weren’t fully human, Westerners were willing to tolerate human rights atrocities. “Would not have made it through AP Literature without the printable PDFs. Our, LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in. Write. If you’d like to listen along, here’s 7th grader, Malia Rush, reading chapter eight – World Record for the Having the Best Secret. Second, contrast the chivalry and magnanimity of the tribesmen who spared Father Achte’s life with the sadism of the Force Publique—Hochschild suggests that the Congolese rebels, despite being characterized as “savages,” were actually far more honorable and “civilized” than their European colonizers. If the urban planners of the 21st century are to fight these problems, they’ll be dealing with ten times as many people as.

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