William thought he had support from both places. William of Orange emerged as the de facto leader of the opposition. 2nd ed. Spain’s concurrent enterprises against England and France at this time, however, allowed the republic to begin a counteroffensive. . As soon as Parma and his army landed, they began a successful campaign, taking Gembloux on 31 January 1578, and Leuven on 13 February. By the time the Twelve Years' Truce finally expired in 1621, Philip III was dead, and pro-war factions on both sides called for renewed hostilities. With William of Orange out of the picture, Parma began his campaign to reconquer the Netherlands. In order to counter the English, and in part as a reaction Philip appointed his half-brother, Don Juan of Austria (1547–1578), to replace Requesens as governor-general of the Netherlands. The Dutch Revolt had merged into the greater European conflict of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648).

These territories each retained their customary laws and traditions, their so-called ancient liberties. Philip was on the brink of bankruptcy. The revolt of the Netherlands against Spanish rule, also known as the Eighty Years' War, is traditionally said to have begun in June 1568, when the Spanish executed Counts Egmont and Horne in Brussels. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Why did England's Queen Elizabeth support the Dutch in their revolt … It was in the pursuit of this war that the Spanish empire in Europe eventually foundered.…. The division between the largely royalist Catholic provinces of the south and the independent-minded Calvinist provinces of the north tore the States-General apart. Dylan Graves, McAvoy, Period 8. He sent his Spanish army back to the Low Countries under the leadership of Alexander Farnese (1555–1592), the prince and eventual duke of Parma. Alba succeeded in retaking the towns held by rebels, but the thought of a protracted war in Holland and Zeeland, places where William had many supporters, split the Spanish leadership, so in November 1573 Philip II replaced Alba with Don Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga (1528–1576). The Spanish troop mutinies of 1576, more than anything else, brought the various provinces of the Low Countries together in common cause. Within the year the financial crisis had become acute, Requesens had died, and despite a Spanish victory over Zierikzee in Zeeland, the Spanish could not make their payroll and the troops mutinied once again. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. By 1569, it seemed that revolt in the Netherlands had been snuffed out and had little chance of reigniting. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). By 1618 – the start of the Thirty Years War – no catholic country saw Spain as a useful ally.

His attempt to invade the Netherlands from his ancestral home in Germany with a force of some 30,000 men in October 1568 was no match for the Spanish forces. Alessandro Farnese Probably the most important move toward centralization prior to the revolt was taken by Emperor Charles V (ruled 1519–1556) when he succeeded in having his "seventeen provinces" of the Netherlands united as a single entity by agreement of the States-General (parliament) to his Pragmatic Sanction in 1549.

Encyclopedia.com. Soon the nobles, including William of Orange (1533–1584), Lamoraal, count of Egmont (1522–1568), and the count of Hoorne, Filips van Montmorency (1518–1568), became disenchanted with Philip's increasingly absolutist-tilting government in Brussels, © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. For Philip II the English involvement in the revolt could only be viewed as an act of war. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/dutch-revolt-1568-1648, "Dutch Revolt (1568–1648) Whereas the Burgundian dukes did not move too quickly in the direction of expansion and centralization, their Habsburg successors certainly did.

DUTCH REVOLT (1568–1648). Eighty Years’ War, (1568–1648), the war of Netherlands independence from Spain, which led to the separation of the northern and southern Netherlands and to the formation of the United Provinces of the Netherlands (the Dutch Republic). The Dutch then turned to one of their own to lead the revolt: Count Maurice of Nassau (1567–1625), the second son of William of Orange. Reprint, 1980. ." At the time William had no choice but to retreat. Elliot Young's AP European History Timeline‎ > ‎Themes‎ > ‎Warfare and changing powers‎ > ‎ Dutch Revolt In the 15th century, the Netherlands had been Spain's most profitable land. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). A rebel army under Louis of Nassau managed to take Mons (Bergen) and other rebels took a few other towns, but the French force from the south was roundly defeated at St. Ghislain, and the French crown's changing attitudes toward the Huguenots meant that no more forces would be sent. Peasant Revolt Dbq. Meanwhile, Requesens had heeded Alba's advice and pressed into Holland and Zeeland. The Political Thought of the Dutch Revolt, 1555–1590. 8. Don Juan died of the plague in October, and Philip appointed Parma as governor of the Netherlands. The Revolt of the Netherlands (1555–1609). Elizabeth I appointed Robert Dudley, the earl of Leicester (1532/33–1588), as governor-general, but she could not eliminate the disunity that plagued the Netherlands, and Leicester's attempts to impose his own ideas of centralized government were doomed to failure. By April 1566 as many as four hundred lesser nobles, all supporters of the Compromise, assembled at Brussels to present their petition to Margaret. A terrified Margaret acquiesced to the repeated demands of the Beggars and agreed to an "Accord" permitting Protestant worship in the parts of the Low Countries where it was already being practiced. The iconoclast movement itself, which had raged across the country like a storm, had already shown a deep-rooted resistance that had many causes and was brought to a head by Alba’s measures.…, The war resumed in 1621 under Maurice’s leadership. The area concerned was part of the Habsburg Empire and known as the Spanish Netherlands. William was right to be concerned about Don Juan's intentions. Because at commercial crossroads had many religious influences. Maurice succeeded in recapturing many of the northern towns lost to Spain at just the time that Philip II ordered Parma's army to intervene in the civil war in France, where Parma died in 1592. London, 1989. The naval battle was a crushing de…, Dutch Participation in the American Revolution, Dutchess Community College: Narrative Description, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/dutch-revolt-1568-1648, Isabel Clara Eugenia and Albert of Habsburg (Isabel Clara Eugenia, 1566–1633; Albert of Habsburg, 1559–1621). The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806. I was wondering if it would get harder as the year continued. Despite military assistance from both France and England, infighting among the provinces precluded the possibility of united action. In the 15th century, the Netherlands had been Spain's most profitable land. He ordered Requesens to open negotiations with the rebels.

These constitutional issues were being raised at a time of increasing religious tensions, due mostly to the ecclesiastical reforms—Philip II proposed to institute new bishoprics in the Low Countries—and also to an increase in the prosecution of "heretics." Albert had little success in consolidating Spanish power in the Netherlands, however, because of Spanish bankruptcy, troop mutinies, and desertions.

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