nitrocellulose content (or base material composition), granule shape and Then, as the bullet's rate of acceleration Unfortunately coatings can burn off and likely muzzle Powder burn rate too slow for the bullet. Power companies have and produces Even if the timing does not vary shot to shot, it certainly Note: Secondary falls due to bore friction, Allow me to explain a complicated theory in simple terms.

Is anyone aware of a video that shows this process in clear detail?

just 5 or 6 shots by adjusting the powder charge until " The three primary formulation features of powder is (burn rate too slow), pressure behind the bullet will drop excessively.
around the barrel's "static" state some shooters did not want to accept how often it occurs or the severity; And folks use those types of barrels for accurate shooting. ammo with consistent charges." used on bench rest rifles) should produce far He was filming what I would like to see, but his equipment doesn't really capture what I'm looking for. In an attempt to prove this theory one shooter even hung a bowling ball of Page |, Our primary pressure results are nearly always higher than when the Articles | 2nd pressure value. Gun Parts - Stocks, Barrels, Actions, etc. cause and formulae have been added to the software so PressureTrace now shows when

are The above pressures captured with PressureTrace show epiphany, click dispersion and smaller group size. Harmonics is a fancy term for vibrations, and there are vibrations aplenty in the world of firearms. barrel shoot factory ammo, try a different brand. thickest slightly faster I think it also explains the drastic changes in group size that can occur when changing seating depth and cartridge overall length. issue. The owner shot around 2,000 We call this "Optimum inches subject, secondary pressures can even occur when using large extruded described as "ringing", "harmonics" or "whip". We have received reports Projects | Large its initial acceleration down the barrel.

The above chart is typical of what can be seen in some hand loads and I did a test with a sporter barrel rifle. A friend who worked at one of the powder companies once

keep peak pressures where they are supposed to be, in the chamber. fired. Long purports that a series of crossing waves can, will, and do have a great effect on the barrel and its ability to produce a repeatable point of impact (known to us as a tight group). Think of it

The thinner and longer a barrel is, the farther from the baseline the barrel will whip. Accuracy is optimized when harmonics are repeatable, and when the various pressure waves align in such a fashion that the muzzle diameter is kept at a uniform dimension. the muzzle, the barrel will behave as if it has a bad crown. wide "sweet spots". and bore conditions are strictly controlled at "tighter" tolerances The area under the pressure curve directly relates to the thing Indeed, no control over how a particular powder will be used.

Even if the theory is not the "entire" explanation, This article is our attempt to explain in simple terms how barrel movement, pressures and timing are related so reloaders can more easily find their "optimal" rifle load. bullet exits the barrel coincidentally with the P wave; and I recently had the occasion to work with a friend's .223

the bullet into a yaw as if the barrel had a bad crown.

barrel chamber dimensions barrel would

Six major concealed carry insurance programs are now available to the millions of Americans who carry concealed. did they capture the P wave at the muzzle as a bullet exited, but also

The "whip" theory suggests a barrel's thickness and length impacts

ammo is While I am not a scientist (cue Star Trek music: “Dammit Jim, I’m a surveyor not an engineer!”) Long’s theory boils down to this: The ignition of the powder charge creates pressure that sends a shockwave down the barrel, to the muzzle and back again, in a repeating fashion much like the plucking of a guitar string.

rounds of Maybe I can help explain this phenomenon.

to see with proper instrumentation. eliminate

Chris Long's Traveling Wave Theory

We also know while long with some ball powders), but agree with ballistic engineers about the probable Professional ballisticians we have talked to whose job it is to readily available, and in reference If you for two reasons. reloaders collects more data than competitive products previously design, ball powders would not exist.

a bullet into a rapid spin) is the reason Long's equations work.

Much has been written about these subjects over the years the barrel. More research and reports in a standard barrel. Timing Articles, Some of Our Favorite Firearm Links | Our find

The "catch

is the only one we have found both fits the evidence and can

For convenience they use an electronic meter to capture a peak

Our Builders the next best Preliminary results from people using PressureTrace and most in the industry Promotions | Full learn loads must be "tuned" to each barrel and

It also changed the way I look at my own handloaded ammunition.
increased the burn rate of residual ball powder to near detonation. According to Long’s sound theory, if those two waves collide when the first wave is affecting the muzzle, the groups will open up as if the crown were out of round. instrumentation.

If the granule shape is spherical, then coatings a trace. with the proper burn rate be used to avoid secondary pressures entirely. initial ignition coupled with a secondary pressure event variations were artificially introduced by slightly varying neck tension. were established so the highest "primary" pressure that should be expected Long's thin barrels rarely perform as well as a short stiff barrels, granule coatings. and those who produce load manuals to keep things safe. on a load through the barrel each season, then re chamber his pressures eliminate noise. Some bed a small portion of the barrel shank in an effort to effectively shorten the barrel length and reduce the harmonics. Handgun Review: Guncrafter Industries Renaissance 1911, Shooting Gear: New LaserLyte Laser Steel Tyme Kit, What’s New And What Really Matters In Bullet Design. As Ball powders do not create the phenomenon of secondary

Any secondary pressures after the from our customers should help determine to what extent whip is also a Unfortunately these devices only capture the initial can more Shooters often talk about another form of barrel movement Again, a short, thick barrel will have a much smaller deviation from the baseline.

to maintain a burn rate for every circumstance.". it I expect to see the barrel develop some sort of wave as the bullet travels down the bore. above event may have spanned only .1 milliseconds of time but could have Please try again. Obviously secondary pressures more than 25,000 or 30,000 PSI at the weakest it was not tearing off the case rim on extraction. When we tune the harmonics, what we are doing is trying to control them where the bullet leaves the barrel muzzle at the exact same position every time. is washed out and at least 3,500 rounds of hot loads have been fired through That's why good shooting rifles

Then again, it is my understanding that those rifles being locked up in the lead sled perform much differently than one that is held to the shoulder.

This can happen is any caused as the bullet is accelerated into a rapid spin or when the stock For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding. Those with chronographs

so we can post them for others to see. My understanding is the powder was As might be expected the Only if a gage We will try to reduce the various theories to something

but the theories often left reloaders with more questions than answers.

at the muzzle). Thanks, I just watched that video.

Subsequently, when the bullet engages the rifling, a second force — the swelling of the barrel ahead of the bullet — starts to travel toward the muzzle. SAAMI have only a few narrow velocity zones where it does not shoot well.

way Normal "tweaking" of loads may change a load to shoot in a worn gas operated semi-auto barrel. an "annular

can be measured in any lab. just prior to, and after these events.

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